App marketers are set to lose up to $100 million in 2016 due to app install and engagement advertising fraud.
The data comes from AppsFlyer, which found that 50% more fraud occurs on Android than iOS, but fraud occurring on iOS tends to pay more.
There's also a correlation between fraud rates and cost-per-install, as regions with higher CPIs saw higher rates of fraud.
Fraudulent click data, paid installs from fraudulent devices, and fraudulent and simulated in-app events are listed as the main causes of the loss of revenues.
The data was found using AppsFlyer's new anti-fraud technology, DeviceRank, which launches today.
DeviceRank uses data logged from 1.4 trillion mobile interactions from the last 5 years to determine which devices are fraudulent and automatically clear them from marketer's campaigns.
"As we've seen from our global study, fraudsters and scammers are growing increasingly sophisticated, tricking advertisers into paying for both installs and in-app engagement," said Oren Kaniel, co-founder and CEO of AppsFlyer.
"DeviceRank takes a radically different approach, cutting off fraud at the source and adding transparency to our industry in order to protect advertisers, our partners and the entire market."